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While 9-1-1 Centers gradually become more accustomed to using the Internet (governed by local protocol and SOPs to protect against misuse) as a valuable tool in its arsenal of information management resources, the use of these social networking services has until very recently been considered inappropriate...
Late last year Stratus created a 19-question survey that featured questions on call volume, staffing, next-generation 9-1-1 plans, use of virtualization technologies, system outages and more. With the Survey completed and results analyzed, 9-1-1 magazine interviewed Dave LeClair, Senior Direct of Strategy & Product Management for Stratus Technologies, to detail the results they found - and what they mean to PSAP technology and operations for 2014.
During Hurricane Sandy, more than 20+ million tweets were posted about the disaster. iRevolutions calculates that "Even if only 0.001% of these tweets were useful, and only half of these were accurate, this would still mean over 1,000 real-time and informative tweets, or some 15,000 words. That is the equivalent of a 25-page, single-space document exclusively composed of fully relevant, actionable intelligence.”
911 Enable, a leading provider of E9-1-1 solutions for IP telephony, reports that its Emergency Routing Service (ERS) has successfully completed interoperability testing with Acme Packet's Net-Net session border controllers (SBCs). This testing provides organizations with confidence that their critical 9-1-1 data will reach the ERS, without compromising the safety and integrity of their network.
The flood of new technology makes it easier than ever to reach out and communicate with someone, right? Think again. While it's true that communicating with "someone" may indeed be easier, achieving dependable communications with "everyone" on a moment's notice and in an emergency crisis is at least as much of a challenge as ever. So why is that?
The public's desire to contact 9-1-1 by the latest of communications technologies - SMS texting, in this case - has led to new technologies that allow callers to report crimes via text message to 9-1-1 PSAPs... The availability of this technology means that the 9-1-1 Centers are going to have to find a way to receive this new form of texted 9-1-1 call... 9-1-1 magazine recently interviewed Barbara Jaeger, ENP, President of the NENA Executive Board, about this important issue...
Alvarion partnered up with the City of Cleburne, Texas to Install Wireless Networks for Public Safety Connectivity... Currently, police vehicles patrolling the city use a laptop computer connected to the city's fiber network and information systems via a high speed wireless broadband card, such as an AirCard. The city decided to implement a private wireless network that would eliminate recurring charges and readily expand to other city services and public works as it continues to expand the...
The unfortunate reality for public safety organizations that house confidential and sensitive data, including the personal information of employees and citizens, is that there is no end to cybersecurity threats such as botnets, worms, and hacking.
In the event of an emergency you count on 9-1-1 to be on the other side of the line, but the Brazos County, Texas, Emergency Communication District is warning residents about apps designed to dial 9-1-1.
Emergency communications leader Cassidian Communications and Greater Harris County 9-1-1 Emergency Network have announced the successful advanced text messaging trial using the company's next generation 9-1-1 emergency response call processing platform, VESTA. The trial involved the receipt and processing of text messages from within the Houston area. Although the general public believes the capability for short message service (SMS) also known as text messages to 9-1-1 should be available...
InterAct has published an in-depth White Paper that examines the company's core technology: "Cloud Computing and Public Safety Services" by Dr. Toufic Boubez. Dr. Boubez pioneered the field of SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) systems as the Chief Architect for Web Services at IBM's Software Group. While there, he drove IBM's web strategies and authored several key industry specifications. He is also the author of several major books on SOA.
Cloud-based services give public safety agencies fast, easy access to feature functionality on a flexible, scalable and secure infrastructure... By moving premises-based technology infrastructures to off-site, managed, cloud-based solutions, PSAPs can experience real benefits in terms of flexibility, scalability, and security.
Your Dispatch Center may receive a call from a service called "Crisis Text Line" (CTL) requesting assistance on a suicidal subject or other such crisis. They are a national crisis intervention service based in Manhattan, NY; they are legitimately trying to help those in need via text messages... I can see this service complementing 9-1-1 much like Suicide Prevention Hotlines have done for decades
2016 was an eventful year for public safety, with the rise in civil disobedience, increased targeting of and violence against police officers, and the changing face of the terrorist threat. On the technology front cyber security, drones, digital surveillance, and body cams took turns in the spotlight. So what’s in store in 2017? Here are some predictions, some safe and others slightly riskier, for what we’ll see next year.
During large scale emergencies where community members are displaced from homes or schools, StatusNet911 Community Contact provides an easy to navigate web-based registration system. Authorized personnel at emergency shelters, schools, houses of worship, hospitals, police stations and other locations, which are commonly used as shelter sites during an emergency, will be able to quickly identify and register displaced families and individuals.
Disaster Management: Controlling Rumors On Social Media Is Crucial During A Disaster Or Terrorist Attack
A study on the use of social media in three major incidents revealed that Twitter is emerging as the dominant social reporting tool to report eye-witness accounts and share information on disasters... But when it is the online community who are creating and exchanging the news rather than official news channels, this can not only exaggerate the unfolding situation, but also unintentionally turn it into misinformation, diverting attention from the real problems.
When Solano County (Northern CA) Sheriffâ€™s dispatchers received a 9-1-1 call from a young boy reporting his father had fallen while hiking, the call didnâ€™t last long enough to determine an accurate location. But trainee Breanna Martinez then came up with an idea - she searched on the fatherâ€™s name in Google, came up with a LinkedIn page, which led to a Facebook page and an important clue.
The future model of law enforcement communications centers is on the verge of a paradigm shift, one which will vastly change the way dispatching services are provided. In the near future, your communications center will likely integrate cloud-based technology. To take advantage of the cloud for emergency communications, though, we must first understand the long-term benefits of cloud-based communications centers, have clarity regarding options for deployment, and work to obtain the tools...
The "Brussels Attacks - Crossover between research and reality" document, authored by Nicolas Vanderbiest and published by the European Emergency Number Association (EENA), analyzes recent crises in Europe and concludes to the following 6 stages of reactions: the information phase; the phase of emotion; the transition phase; the organizational phase; the phase of interest; and the disorganization phase.
Residents of Gulf, Franklin, and Calhoun counties in Florida can send a text to 9-1-1 when a voice call is too dangerous, or not possible due to disability
Everbridge Integrates Community Outreach and Emergency Management in New Community Engagement Solution
Everbridge, a leading global provider in unified critical communications, has announced its Community Engagement solution, aimed at helping local governments and law enforcement build strong, transparent relationships with the communities they serve. The new solution increases the reach of emergency management teams and expands community outreach to include keyword-based opt-ins; Facebook, Twitter and Google message distribution; and access to Nixle community resident opt-ins.
A new group that has been created on Facebook to raise awareness of violent assaults in England hopes to gained attention in both political and public safety circles. The group, called ONE PUNCH CAN KILL, was created by British writer John Mansell, whose son died last April due after suffering brain damage when he was severely beaten in an unprovoked assault.
Facecrook, a new app for federal, state and local police, is now available on the Apple App Store. An Android version will be available soon. Facecrook is a digital notebook of suspects, persons of interest, and those arrested in your jurisdiction. Each profile contains physical descriptors, demographic information, contact information and photos.
FCC's Public Safety And Homeland Security Bureau Seeks Comment On Issues Related To 911 Applications For Smartphones
The Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau seeks comment on a request by the National Association of State 911 Administrators (NASNA) to initiate a proceeding to address issues related to how smartphone 911 applications (911 apps) interface with 911 systems...
On March 22-23, law enforcement agencies around the world took to Twitter to participate in a 24-hour Tweet-a-thon in order to highlight the work of officers around the world and show how they are using social media to support policing activities. The results were outstanding, with more than 230 police departments across 10 countries tweeting under the hashtag #poltwt, making it a top 10 trending topic around the globe.
As a new year approaches, law enforcement officials across the nation are undoubtedly aware of many of the trends affecting their work. Here is a look at five issues certain to shape law enforcement in 2013:
The Marion County (FL) Sheriff's Office (MCSO) has launched a service that will enable citizens to text the agency for help in an emergency by texting their 9-1-1 center. The system, which was developed in house, enables urgent text messages to be received and handled by a system that is separate from the agency's 9-1-1 system. Messages are displayed on a dedicated screen.
Think you're good at giving good driving directions, specifying street names, lane ends, and landmarks like the mountains east and west of the your community? The same ease probably wouldn't apply in places around Saskatoon, Canada... Just ask Ron Boechler, the police chief for Corman Park, a Rural Municipality (RM) located around Saskatoon. He'd have been lost without the guidance of MD Ambulance Dispatcher Kim Wruck. Without their teamwork, a young woman would not likely have survived the...
So far it's been a quiet night. You handled a few disturbances, a handful of family disputes, and an alarm here and there. Then this pops up in your queue: "d 5-o crash on jensen ppl hurt tnk cUd B trapd." Wow! Your first text message since your center started receiving them. No problem, it's clear as day. Or is it? Your dispatching who, to where, for what? This installment of From the Chair looks at a future where 9-1-1 inevitably collides with "Socialized Media."
Information is knowledge and knowledge can save lives in an emergency. The City of Sandy Springs will be the first city in Georgia to use a new 9-1-1 system that will provide first responders vital information instantly. They will also be the first city in the United States to allow 9-1-1 operators to be able to initiate texting with emergency callers.
The Highland Park (IL) Police Department is now offering residents a much more convenient and cost effective online alternative to filing a police report in person for minor offenses. Using solutions from New World Systems, the leader in public sector software, and Coplogic, Inc., the Police Department's Online Citizen Reporting System is improving the use of officer time and ensuring all stolen property is accurately reported and tracked.
As the nation struggled to understand how something like 9/11 could occur on American soil, information came to light about breakdowns in information sharing between law enforcement agencies that might have helped prevent it. Predictably, there was a heated outcry to fix those breakdowns in order to protect our citizens from similar threats in the future... So, what has been done since those dark days to improve information sharing and law enforcement intelligence analysis? Actually, quite a...
In December 2014, Barack Obama signed an executive order to initiate the Presidentâ€™s Task Force on 21st Century Policing... One of the key recommendations was that police use data and technology to improve public trust in their communities. Open Data is Location Data - police can leverage the Esri technology they already own to start building trust in their own communities.
There are three areas of emergency communications that have seen progress, but need continued improvement: interoperability between responding agencies and other municipalities; incoming information to Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) and 9-1-1 dispatch centers; and delivering information to an engaged and connected public, given the rise in popularity of social networking sites like Twitter and Facebook.
Continuing to deliver on its commitment to the Public Safety Cloud, InterAct, a leading provider of incident-response and management solutions today announced the release of InterDEx, a next generation data sharing and agency interoperability platform. This nationwide platform allows public safety professionals to better communicate with each other and share data freely, simply and effectively even when they work for different agencies in different jurisdictions.
InterAct has announced an expansion of their strategic partnership with Nlets, the International Justice and Public Safety Network provider, to accelerate the deployment of the InterAct Public Safety Cloud. As part of this partnership expansion, InterAct will migrate the hosting of their InterAct Records Management System (RMS) application to the Nlets data center.
"There is no credible reason to doubt that the cloud will be the predominant platform for public safety applications. Even legacy on-premise systems will be interconnected with a myriad of cloud-resident services including the NG9-1-1 communications backbone of emergency response. The benefits of scale and connectivity are not only economic but also functional. Shared multi-tenant systems really do enable public safety providers to do more with less..."
I-CAT is a reliable and secure cloud-based service for partners in the Intrado A9-1-1 Alliance Member Program and companies focused on solutions for public safety agencies in the United States. I-CAT delivers co-location, hosting and secure, private network transport services in one affordable, convenient package designed specifically for the stringent requirements of public safety.
The Internet is public. Even when comments or posts are sent directly to a specific distribution group or only shared with “friends” there is nothing stopping these individuals from forwarding, re-posting, or sharing with others. There is nothing more embarrassing than complaining about a co-worker (or your boss) only to have them eventually receive and read your comments.
Consumers of child pornography break the law when they download photos and videos from file-sharing networks. But police are more concerned with the porn producers uploading the files. Every new posting means a child is in harm's way. To accelerate the acquisition of information needed to arrest child predators, law enforcement officers have teamed with data analytics experts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for a project that will use Jaguar, one of the world's fastest supercomputers, to...
On March 22, starting at 8 a.m., law enforcement agencies around the world will connect via Twitter to participate in a 24-hour Tweet-a-thon to bring attention to the use of social media by law enforcement. Agencies will tweet using the same hashtag, #poltwt, to create awareness about police work and issues police face as well as to promote the use of social media in policing.
LexisNexis Risk Solutions has expanded its capabilities to assist law enforcement officials with investigations and critical incidents such as gang violence, drug dealing, crimes against children and human trafficking through the use of social media. Social Media Monitor, a new capability in the LexisNexis Accurint for Law Enforcement platform that is powered by the technology of DigitalStakeout, allows agencies to discover risks and threats by leveraging social media to provide actionable...
The LexisNexis Crime Alerts Mobile app is available now. By downloading the LexisNexis Crime Alerts Mobile app on an iPhone or Apple Watch, individuals are notified of criminal events around a designated address or geolocation, new crime events that have occurred in the last 24 hours and criminal events that occur while the individual is on the move.
Lifesource Health, Inc. is proud to announce its new mobile application At The Scene. For the first time, Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and Paramedics will have immediate, real-time access to accurate patient health information at the scene in an emergency situation, allowing for more accurate patient assessment and improved care.
Leveraging publicly available social media posts could help disaster response agencies quickly identify impacted areas in need of assistance, according to a Penn State-led team of researchers. By analyzing the September 2013 Colorado floods, researchers showed that a combination of remote sensing, Twitter and Flickr data could be used to identify flooded areas.
Los Angeles-based company, MobileTrec, has launched SafeKidZone, a mobile personal security network based on a mobile phone application that places a "Panic Button" on kids' cell phones which can rapidly connect to 9-1-1.
LexisNexis Risk Solutions has announced that the Nassau County (NY) Police Department has implemented an electronic crash reporting system that will drive internal efficiencies and improve services provided to the citizens of Nassau County. The new system enables the Nassau County PD to fully automate its accident reporting process, allowing its citizens to review and print reports electronically over the Internet.
We hope you've found 9-1-1 Magazine's new incarnation as emergency communications' first Web Portal valuable and informative. We've tried very hard to provide the same sense of articulate vision and presentation about public safety communications technology and operations that we did in nearly a quarter century of existence as a print publication...
The Center for Domestic Preparedness is kicking of the new year with its new CDP LinkedIn account, a platform for emergency responders and training officers to get the latest news on new courses and CDP training and - of course - network. The CDP's primary mission is to train state, local and tribal emergency response providers, as well as the Federal government, foreign governments, and private entities, as available...
CrimePush has launched an innovative new crime-reporting and personal safety app for the iPhone and Android marketplace. With a few intuitive clicks, community members can now report crimes, medical emergencies, or other threatening situations to their local authorities at the push of a button. Because of the smartphone's unique capabilities this app can discretely send alerts that include detailed GPS coordinates, photos, text, and even video.
What public safety leaders need to know about how to make the move to next-generation 9-1-1 services, and how best to take advantage of the benefits these services provide... Through the Next Generation 9-1-1 initiative (NG9-1-1) initiative,PSAPS are looking to incorporate new technical capabilities. Yet being able to tie Emergency Services IP Networks (ESInets) to legacy networks, and ensuring that PSAPs can handle video, streaming, data, texting and voice, plus obtain the location of a...
NICE Systems and CloudScann Provide a New Perspective on Security and Safety with Mobile App Solution
NICE and CloudScann partner on integrated mobile app, initially deployed at NJ TRANSIT, that vastly extends situational awareness and expedites critical response...
Recently, Facebook, the world's largest social media outlet, launched a new suicide prevention feature which will allow users to report suicidal or worrisome posts with the click of a button. When a user sees a post that suggests that the individual who wrote the post may be suicidal, he or she can flag the post to be reviewed by a Facebook administrator, who will then contact the individual directly if he or she determines there is reason for concern.
Recently the Internet has been all a-twitter about numerous reports of employers requesting social media passwords from prospective and current employees... While on the surface this practice seems a shocking violation of personal space and freedoms, there are others who would argue that valuable information concerning hiring decisions can be gained in this manner... Let's take a closer look at the issue; especially as it applies to public safety communications.
- From Charleston Gazzette, Charleston, WV: As emergency responders have increasingly turned to social media to interact with the public, they are seeing an unintended, potentially dangerous side effect... the expectation of two-way interaction should stop when the page's fans begin to expect urgent assistance
The Salt Lake Valley Emergency Communications Center (VECC) announced that several counties in Utah have taken the initiative to provide the first IP-capable 9-1-1 call delivery system in the state. Intrado and CenturyLink will offer an emergency service number (ESN)-based ESInet for all 9-1-1 wireline and wireless call handling and routing; IP-based Intrado VIPER call processing equipment; and a common database for call routing and mapping systems that display caller location. This new...
In last monthâ€™s column, "Tweet This - Google That," I discussed some issues related to dealing with change in electronic communications. This month, Iâ€™d like to continue this discussion, with the focus on applications.
Across America, neighborhoods are turning to a new neighborhood social network to communicate with neighbors, trade goods, borrow gardening tools, find lost pets, cut back on crime and respond to emergencies. Nextdoor is a new, free and secure social network designed to connect neighbors with each other and build community.
It’s our jobs collectively to question. We can’t blindly accept that the picture provided us is accurate, or that the two lines of text received are even close to being correct. These will take on even greater implications in the Next Gen 9-1-1 world of tomorrow. But right now they simply apply to getting all the information needed to come to the truth.
LexisNexis Risk Solutions has announced the results of a comprehensive survey focused on the impact of social media on law enforcement in criminal investigations. The survey revealed that currently four out of five respondents use various social media platforms to assist in investigations and found agencies serving smaller populations and with fewer sworn personnel (<50) use social media more, while state agencies tend to use it less (71%) than local (82%) and federal (81%) agencies.
On January 10-12, 2011, Santa Monica Police Department (SMPD) will host the second Social Media the Internet and Law Enforcement (SMILE) Conference at the RAND Center in Santa Monica to discuss the use of social media to improve law enforcement, community engagement and crime prevention.
Most people would agree that communications within a Police Department is critical to the daily and safe operation of any community. An unfortunate trend has caught on, though, perhaps in response to tight municipal budgets and officer layoffs... Recognizing that a more effective and safe solution would significantly increase the speed and accuracy of communications from the field, PDV took the lead by creating an application called SkyMail, which allows police officers to quickly and...
Smart911Connect Provides Solution Providers and App Developers a Method for Delivering Data to 9-1-1
Rave Mobile Safety, creators of the national public safety database Smart911, has announced Smart911Connect, the first program connecting third parties holding data relevant to the emergency response process with supported 9-1-1 centers. Call takers and dispatchers within Smart911 connected public safety answering points (PSAPs) across the country can now automatically receive approved sources of data, including text and images, delivered to their workstation in real-time alongside a 9-1-1...
Looking beyond the processing of emergency requests, social media can easily be implemented and utilized for various functions to support a PSAP... Most agencies have some component of community policing,fire prevention, communications, or interactive community involvement in their strategic plans. These are excellent areas that can be enhanced by social media because they primarily require dissemination of information from the agency to the public.
In a recent blog posted yesterday by Eric Holdeman at emergencymgmt.com, the author contrasts two distinct types of emergency managers. "One set has decided to implement the use of social media into their emergency management functions," Holdeman wrote, "and the second set have said, 'No thank you, and since no one is demanding it, I can coast and not do anything.'" In today's information age, Holdeman asserts, the latter group is destined to fail, especially considering the demands of...
Tsunami Threat Highlights the No. 1 Issue for Disaster Response Units: Misinformation on Social Media
What if law enforcement had the ability to identify and potentially prevent crime before it happened? What if they were able to get out in front of when and where criminal activity would occur, and deploy resources accordingly?
St. Clair County, Illinois has successfully upgraded to and deployed Tiburon CAD in the Company's secure-cloud computing environment. The success of the solution's deployment provided St. Clair County with confidence to add Tiburon Law RMS into the mix.
A carrier-grade Interactive Session Recorder (ISR), EvolutionISR is specifically designed to overcome the unique challenges associated with capturing, securing, archiving and managing interactive session recordings in IP telephony environments. As NG9-1-1 brings broadband communications capabilities to 9-1-1 call centers, with video, text and other data delivered and utilized as part of the 9-1-1 call handling process, EvolutionISR will ensure that all these data are captured, recorded and...
Thales has launched its new end-to-end integrated and distributed Long Term Evolution (LTE) solution for the US public safety market. Thales's LTE solution is the only network with a corresponding push-to-talk smart phone that offers a fully distributed architecture for the public safety and first responder communities.
For more than 23 years, 9-1-1 MAGAZINE provided valuable information, enhancing the performance of our public-safety communications professionals. Recent changes in the economic atmosphere brought the suspension of our print version.
Having written the Communication Manager's column for 9-1-1 Magazine for the past 15 years, I now look forward to making the transition to the web from print. While I have already had a few columns posted here, these were actually leftovers that had been waiting publication. So, from this month forward I'll be able to take advantage of the immediacy of the web and post content that is truly fresh.
Public safety professionals continue to adopt new technologies that allow them to monitor potentially dangerous or illegal activities and gain access to information that improves their ability to do their job, and the quality of the services being provided. However, municipalities that purchase and implement these technologies are often at risk themselves from hidden vulnerabilities that can be exploited by cyber criminals. Thus, sensitive data that is necessary for reporting crime and...
TriTech Software Systems Partners with Nlets to Introduce a Cloud-based Public Safety Intelligence Application
TriTech Software Systems has announced its strategic partnership with Nlets as its hosting services provider for TriTech.com IQ, the cloud-based version of its award-winning Inform IQ public safety intelligence solution. As the premier, trusted interstate justice and public safety data transmission network, Nlets provides a highly secure and reliable hosting facility for TriTech.com cloud-based services.
Social media is useful for more than just connecting with old high school friends and sharing cat videos. Twitter has become the go-to platform for breaking news on everything from the Boston Marathon bombing to the flyby of Pluto. Now, research reveals that Twitter can also be used for rapid damage tracking after natural disasters - possibly even more quickly and expansively than similar assessments carried out by FEMA.
As the last ten years have seen huge advancements in the communication technologies we use in our everyday connected lifestyles with smart phones, tablet PCs, netbooks, and the like, there has also been a paradigm shift in how we gather, consume and disseminate information. No longer must we rely on the media for telling us what is happening around the world, but we now can plug directly into news channels via social media outlets, situational awareness alerting services, blogs, etc. to...
First responders and emergency personnel across the United States will be able to better respond to emergencies and routine activities by tapping into the power of mobile broadband, with the introduction of a new vehicle-based modem that enables applications such as ultra-fast database access, photos and streaming video.
The 2013 State of the Enterprise Cloud Report, which draws upon Verizon data between January 2012 and June 2013, examines current cloud adoption and usage trends - both in terms of how organizations are deploying cloud technologies and what they want from enterprise-grade cloud services. It considers the factors driving adoption; the growth in demand for VMs, memory, and storage; and expectations for the future of the cloud.
Beginning April 18th, Verizon Wireless customers can send a text message to 9-1-1 from locations in Vermont for emergency help as part of a six-month trial to test the potential of this technology. From now until October 15, 2012, the Williston Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) will accept 9-1-1 text messages from Verizon Wireless customers as part of a collaboration among the Vermont Enhanced 9-1-1 Board, Verizon Wireless and Intrado
EarthCam has posted a commemorative time-lapse video showing the construction of the 9/11 Memorial Museum on the New York City Ground Zero site, from 2004-2014. Click the image above or here to watch the video on youtube, and remember the sacrifices made by the first responders/the amazing construction teams, and all of those who died in the 9/11 attacks here, at the Pentagon, and in a quiet field in Pennsylvania.
Accompanying the increasing popularity of smartphones came the commensurate popularity of applications or "apps" that made them even smarter. Much of this programming is fun, helpful, or at least innocuous. But what happens when a variety of applications - some obviously designed without public safety input - promise to enhance your enhanced 9-1-1 experience?
Mobile apps claim to do just about anything imaginableâ€¦ Some of them are extremely valuable and promise to transform emergency response, while others can be deceptive and even counterproductive. How do public safety agencies separate the wheat from the chaff? In advance of any national standards, hereâ€™s a framework to consider for evaluating apps.
Motorola conducted a survey on the latest trends that impact public safety agencies of all sizes. The results reveal that the use of data-driven communications such as social media, text-to-9-1-1, GPS, video, and cloud technology, are growing rapidly. But thereâ€™s still work to be done. Get the survey results here.
Zetron, a leading provider of mission-critical communications solutions worldwide, announced that it is now shipping a new version of its MAX Dispatch system that includes a direct IP connection to Kenwood's NEXEDGE digital trunking system.